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Patent for Satterlee Clarke,
section 3 in the town of Green
Lake, February 1, 1843

Following the Indian treaties of 1829 and 1833, the federal land surveys of 1833, and the creation of the federal land office at Green Bay in 1834, government lands in Wisconsin south and east of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers were made available for public purchase at the price of $1.25 per acre.

The sales of these lands before the economic panic of 1837 and the depression that followed began slowly, totaling 217,000 acres in 1835. It is estimated that 75% of these early sales were made to speculators. By the mid-1840's, however, sales were sustained at around 700,000 acres per year, and Wisconsin had become the area clearly favored by homeseekers in the new Northwest.

In Green Lake County, subsequent sales occurred rapidly, and local histories indicate that by 1846 most government lands had been claimed.

The following land patent records for the townships in Green Lake County are compiled from the records in the Federal Bureau of Land Management database. Note that the table reflects the original surveys in which towns comprise 36 sections. With the division of Marquette County into the counties of Marquette and Green Lake in 1858, townships in Green Lake County were adjusted to their current boundaries. Among those effects, the original township of Middleton was divided and appended to the towns of Marqueete and Green Lake, the township of Princeton was created, and the townshipss of Princeton, St. Marie, and Seneca were extended west to incorporate the portions of Mecan and Neshkoro lying in the new county of Green Lake.

St. Marie
Green Lake
Alphabetical Index to All Patentees: A-C | D-F | G-I | J-L | M-O | P-R | S-U | V-Z
Fond du Lac County Land Patents

With one exception, noted below, an attempt has been made to retain the information as recorded on the original land patents. Names as originally recorded, however, were not spelled with any more accuracy than the corresponding census records of the period. In many cases, multiple variations on family names and first names are obvious. In a few cases, BLM transcriptions from the original handwritten documents have introduced additional inaccuracies. If you have reason to believe that a record is in error, please contact Bob Schuster by email at rmschust@facstaff.wisc.edu or at 6020 Kristi Circle, Monona, Wisconsin 53716 (608) 221-1421.

One exception to presenting these records as presented in the BLM database is related to the acreage of the property. Patentees were allowed to file for multiple parcels in a single application, and the subsequent patents identified only the total acreage for all parcels. The BLM records consequently assign the total to the last of the properties listed and attribute "0" acres to the others. Because patents generally described properties based on a system of sectional fractions (e.g. SW, NENW, E1/2), the actual acreage for each parcel can easily be calculated. Questions do arise, however, when townships do not consist of exactly 36 square miles. In these cases, adjustments for the excess or deficit were apparently made in the westernmost and northernmost "40's" of the township, resulting in 40's that are fractionally larger or smaller than 40 acres. Because this site focuses on individual parcels rather than on the patent numbers, an attempt has been made to attribute an acreage value to each parcel. The procedure followed here in cases of fractional acreage is to assign all fractions to western or northern 40's. This is, generally, a reliable approach, but visitors are cautioned to confirm actual acreages through other sources.

It is also worth noting that in the towns of Brooklyn and Green Lake in Green Lake County some properties were identified not as sectional fractions, but rather as "lot" numbers. Because the acreages of these lots are extremely variable, patents involving more than one lot in a section are recorded here in a single record and with a single, combined total acreage for the lots.

Although the document facsimilies usually leave little ambiguity about the property being described, in a few cases patents to a property are credited to more than one individual. An example occurs in section 9 of the town of Alto, Fond du Lac County, in which the E1/2SE is credited to both James Thwing and Hendrick Bruins. In general on this site these cases have been resolved by citing all of the patentees named. With the Alto example, however, there is some reason to believe that the Bruins patent refers not to E1/2SE, but rather E1/2NE. The 1862 county plat map credits Bruins with the latter, and the original handwriting on the patent document is, at least, ambiguous (note the Township number, which looks like "South" but is in fact "North"). For that reason, the records here have been modified to read E1/2NE rather than as transcribed during the creation of the electronic records.

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In the town of Berlin, GLO records credit Abraham Teegarden with 255.74 acres on application document number 5020. However, a cursory addition of the acreage of the four parcels would place the figure at 360 acres. A close reading of the document facsimile shown below indicates that the text reads "tree hundred and fifty five acres and seventy four hundredths of an acre," and consequently Teegarden has been credited here with 355.74 acres.

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The official records of the land patents in Wisconsin are now available on the Web from the Bureau of Land Management-Eastern States General Land Office at http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/. Searches can be conducted by accession number, by name, and by state, county, town, and section. Facsimiles of the original patent documents are available on the site.


Accession Number
An alphanumeric code unique to each document that directly relates a document image to the original hardcopy document. Identifies the state, volume number, and page of the original GLO document. An example of this might be LA3010_.023, which identifies a Louisiana document found in Volume 301, Page 23.
Aliquot Parts
Using the rectangular system of survey, land in each state was divided into Townships containing 6 square miles. Each Township was subdivided into 36 Sections, each containing 640 acres. Each Section was further subdivided into halves and quarters, repeatedly, until the piece of land was accurately described. Without the use of Fractional Sections, Blocks, or Lots (in the case of uneven parcels of land), Aliquot Parts were used to represent the exact subdivision of the section of land. Halves of a Section (or subdivision of it) are represented as N, S, E, and W (such as "the north half of section 5"). Quarters of a Section (or subdivision of it) are represented as NW, SW, NE, and SE (such as "the northwest quarter of section 5"). Sometimes, several Aliquot Parts are required to accurately describe a piece of land. For example, "E SW" denotes the east half of the southwest quarter containing 80acres, and SWNENE" denotes the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter containing 10 acres. It is important to remember that the Aliquot Parts shown on the system usually translates into words found on the land document. In general: a section contains 640 acres, a half section contains 320 acres, a quarter section contains 160 acres, a half of a quarter section contains 80 acres, and a quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, etc.
Document Number
The primary identification number given to the original GLO document. A certificate number, warrant number, serial number, or patent number may be used as the Document Number.
Fractional or odd-shaped tracts of land not generally describable by conventional aliquot parts. Lots are sometimes expressed as "Lot 12" or "Lot 12a." If a lot is included in a description of land, it will be denoted in the aliquot parts as a one- or two-digit number and may include a lower case alphabet. For example, "Lot 12a of the north-west quarter" is denoted as "12aNW."
Signature Date
The confirmation date for the land patent. Apparently there were significant lapses of time between the date of filing and the completion of the legal process. Curtis Higley in the town of Metomen is a good example. Although he filed his paperwork on May 29, 1844, the date recorded on the patent is September 1, 1846. Other records indicate that in some cases the signature date is significantly later for a given land parcel than for another even when the document number indicates that it was filed earlier.

Last updated 2/17/2000

This site represents an ongoing effort to collect information related to the history of Green Lake County. If you have information to share, please contact Bob Schuster by email at rmschust@facstaff.wisc.edu or at 6020 Kristi Circle, Monona, Wisconsin 53716 (608) 221-1421.