The Markesan Journal Editorials
James Pond edited the Markesan Journal in Markesan Wisconsin from 1860 to October, 1861, when he abruptly resigned to organize Company C of the Third Wisconsin Cavalry. Many of Pond's issues of the Journal, including all of those published in 1860, have not survived.
FRIDAY, FEB 1, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 11)
[page 2, column 1] A Change
There seems to be a turn in the tide of public sentiment, gradually growing over the minds of the Southern people. It is currently reported, and on reliable authority, that a slave holding firm at Baltimore has discontinued the N. Y. Express, after taking it twenty years, because it makes mischief at the South by falsely representing the people of the North, as their enemies, and because it is incendiary in its influence by giving the slaves the false notion that Republicans intend to free them.
This is deserving rebuke from the right quarter. The people are beginning to think and act for themselves. They will not much longer submit to be led by a few traitors, to the destruction of the Union. The expense of carrying on hostilities to the General Government , is more by far than they can meet. And when it comes to force exorbitant taxation to carry on war, they will conclude that Union is best.
No doubt, this controversy between the North and South had its foundation in the misrepresentation of the Northern people by such political demagogues as train in the ranks of the New York Express.
The best friends of the country are now earnestly seeking to dissuade from violence; a better feeling is pervading the minds of men, North and South. But it is of the highest importance that we should understand each other correctly.
The following paragraph from the Washington Star is certainly encouraging.
"We are very happy to have it in our power to say that the government here has become satisfied that all danger of hostile collision between its forces and those engaged in the secession movement is rapidly disappearing. The revolutionary authorities of South Carolina have entirely changed their policy, and are, now, striving to prevent and avoid the collision in Charleston harbor they were evidently striving to precipitate up to very recently. It is believed that this change in their tactics is the result of the growing desire of the people of South Carolina for a settlement of the difficulties without the permanent destruction of the Union; and that it means that the revolutionary authorities of that State are acting under leading sympathizers with their cause in other States, making it plain to them that their late apparent desire to rush the country into civil war was rapidly uniting the conservatives of every other Southern State, as well as the whole North, without distinction of party, against the nominal cause of the South as represented by South Carolina."
FRIDAY, FEB 8, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 12)
FRIDAY, FEB 15, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 13)
FRIDAY, FEB 22, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 14)
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SENATOR SEWARD'S SPEECH , which of late, has caused such an outburst of indignation from some of the Republicans, seems to be looked upon by the most of our leading Journals, as the language of a true Patriot. The Madison State Journal says nothing but a deep seated feeling of personal malignity toward Mr. SEWARD can explain the misrepresentations, either direct or insinuated, of his recent speech which fill the columns of the Tribune. We do not believe that Mr. S. has any intention of sacrificing the principles vindicated in the election of Mr. Lincoln, and have the utmost confidence that he will live down the slanders of the passing hour. Ere many months, if his life is spared, we have no question but the people will be assured of his fidelity to freedom, by deed as well as words.--The whole ground of complaint against him now seems that he has not chosen to make a passionate and inflammatory speech on the floor of the Senate, instead of one mild and conciliatory in manner which sought to revive a Union feeling, rather than to add to the fury of the existing excitement. At all events we do not believe the time has yet arrived for reading Mr. Seward out of the Republican party, or that there is anything in his late speech to justify Republicans in calling it "serpent plea" and "his Adam fall," as it is denominated in a poem which the Tribune publishes conspicuously with a commendatory preface.
FRIDAY, MARCH 1, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 15)
FRIDAY, MARCH 8, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 16)
[page 2, column 6]
THE INAUGURAL,--We are enabled to give our readers this morning, the Inaugural Address of President LINCOLN. We issue a few hours earlier than usual in order to get it out ahead of the mails, and therefore have to ask an excuse for the lack of editorial and miscellaneous matter.
The Inaugural is a calm, fearless, patriotic effort, commencing with the disavowel [sic] of any purpose to interfere with the institution of slavery where it exists in the Southern States. This is no admission drawn forth by the threats of revolution, but merely a reiteration of sentiments which Mr. Lincoln expressed repeatedly before he was nominated to the Presidency. He declares, in simple language, that the "Union of these States is perpetual."
FRIDAY, MARCH 15, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 17)
FRIDAY, MARCH 22, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 18)
FRIDAY, MARCH 29, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 19)
FRIDAY, APRIL 5, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 20)
FRIDAY, APRIL 12, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 21)
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THE CRISIS AT HAND!!
Our mails of last evening bring advices which leave no room to doubt the meaning of the recent activity in the army and navy. Secretary Seward has officially informed the authorities of Charleston that if Major Anderson is not supplied with provisions from the markets of that city, the Government will supply him at all hazards, and the announcement of the Secretary of State was confirmed by the appearance of a Government fleet off Charleston harbor. The rebels were making great preparations to resist, but it remains to be seen whether they will persist in their mad designs to the extent of commencing hostilities against the Government. If so, with them rests the responsibility. The despatches [sic] to the New York papers agree in the statement that Lieut. Talbot was denied admission to Fort Sumpter [sic], and has returned to Washington with the bearer of the Government despatches [sic] alluded to.
Midnight despatches [sic] to the Sentinel of the 11th bring the following:
Washington, April 10.--It is now certain that the Government has fully determined to reinforce Major Anderson's command at all hazards. I learn upon competent authority that the plan adopted for the relieve [sic] of Fort Sumpter [sic] is substantially as follows:
In case of necessity, supplies are to be thrown into Ft. Sumpter [sic] by means of a number of small boats, presenting smaller and more scattered marks for the cannon of the rebels, will, perhaps save unnecessary bloodshed. The Government has chartered a number of small schooners and other craft, which have been filled with sand bags. These schooners filled with sand bags will sail as bearing boats on the side towards Sumpter [sic].
The boats will, of course, be entirely protected from the guns of the rebels, by the war-like sides and solid contents of the larger vessels.
This plan will be adopted only in the event of that [sic] the Charlestonians fire upon the small steamers loaded with provisions that are first sent in.
In that case, of course, the forts will receive, not only provisions, but men, and the plan above detailed is one by which any requisite force may be thrown into the Fort without any probability of serious loss.
The men-of-war are to steam in and hold themselves in readiness to check any attempt to intercept the boats by armed vessels, as well as to keep the neighborhood of Sumpter [sic] as clear as possible from assaulting parties, who can be easily dealt with by the shells from the steamers, thus leaving Major Anderson and his men at leisure to receive reinforcements, and if need be, deal with forts Moultrie and Johnson, which he can silence without much loss of time.
The plan has been thoroughly considered, and all the leaders are men of skill and courage; success is certain, without much, if any loss of life.
It is quite possible that unforeseen contingencies may cause an alteration in the progrrmme, [sic] but it is certain that the plan above detailed has received commendation in high quarters, and it appears feasible.
Charleston, April 10
A battle is hourly expected. Fort Sumpter [sic] will be attacked without waiting for the Abolition fleet.
The floating battery was towed into position between Sullivan's Island and Fort Sumpter [sic] , on the 9th inst.
FRIDAY, APRIL 19, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 22)
[page 2, column 1]
The Crisis is upon Us
The event that has so long been fearfully anticipated has at last arrived.--Our country, that has so long been the pride of every American, and the envy and dread of other nations of the earth is to-day deluged in civil war. The seat of our national government trembles under its destructive influence. The menaces that have long been hurled at the people of the Northern States by a portion of the slaveholding States have been put in execution. Fort Sumter has been bombarded by the rebels, and the gallant Anderson has been made to surrender the Fort. Such intelligence is sickening in the extreme. Every honest lover of his country must feel an unlimited degree of humiliation at the thought, that our own United States of America has become so embecile and feeble as to be compelled to surrender to the hands of a few rebels and traitors.
That Fort Sumter will again be retaken, and that within a short time there can be no doubt. The rebels have commenced a game that two can play at, and from present appearances, they will soon have all the business they can attend to. There is one united voice throughout the North for the Union, and the cup of patriotism seems to be overflowing in every town and hamlet in the Northern States.
The Proclamations of President Lincoln and Governor Randall, will be found in this issue, from which our reader will be able to form a correct conclusion as to what our government intends to do.
FRIDAY, APRIL 19, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 22)
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Fort Sumter Surrendered to the Rebels!
The Entire North Ablaze
The latest news we have received up to the time of going to press is that of the 17th, and as our space is limited, we simply give a brief synopsis of the news to the above date. Every paper that reaches us is filled with dispatches from all parts of the country, giving evident signs that the Northern people are aroused to a man, fully determined to put down treason and mete out a just punishment to the traitors. Political parties have all crumbled into ashes, and Union is the cry from every lip, throughout the free States. An opportunity is now presented to all those who manifested so much enthusiasm in the canvass, and who did seem to care "whether slavery was voted up or down," to show to the world that theirs was no idle profession--that they meant all they professed. Who in Markesan will be first to enroll his name? Don't have it said that our town is lacking heroic blood.
FRIDAY, APRIL 26, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 23)
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TRAITORS IN MARKESAN
Strange as it may seem, there are at this time, when our country is involved in a desperate struggle for the maintenance of political and religious freedom, men in our midst who are daily in the habit of expressing sympathy for the rebels, who have rebelled against the purest and most magnanimous government on earth, and who are determined to rob us here at the North, of our dearly bought liberties, and trample our free institutions in the dust. Should the rebels succeed in this struggle, slavery will be planted on every inch of ground that is now occupied as homes of the free.
Notwithstanding the awful condition that we are placed in, there are men--no not men ! there are traitors in Markesan ! Thank God, there are but a few, and they are marked. The traitors of 1861 will be long remembered--their names will go down to posterity , recorded upon the pages of history, with the word disgrace written opposite each of them. It is indeed humiliating to us to be obliged to make this public acknowledgement, but such is the case. But our traitors do not possess enough of intelligence to do us or the cause we are called upon to defend, any harm. Our advice to them is, to join the Southern army at once, where they can enjoy privileges so much more congenial to their tastes.
FRIDAY, MAY 3, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 24)
FRIDAY, MAY 10, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 25)
["Local Department," page 3, column 3]
IS JOHN PARKER A TRAITOR?
We have heard through numerous sources during the past two weeks, that a mob was forming at Marquette, for the purpose of coming to Markesan and "cleaning out" John Parker, and giving him a "new dress." We have heard that at Berlin it was understood that JOHN PARKER of Markesan , was a "traitor," and that it was a wonder that the citizens of this village did not burn him out! We have been told that JOHN PARKER, while in Milwaukee a short time since, was given two hours to leave that city, or have a coat of tar and feathers! While at Fairwater the other day, we were told that JOHN PARKER was hung in effigy at Markesan on the night of the 27 ult.
Now we would ask of the "patriotic" individuals who have circulated these reports, who it was that raised the first American flag over his store, shortly after the commencement of the Rebellion against our government, and which is now proudly floating over his building ? Who is it that has been foremost in making Union speeches, and declaring anew his fidelity to the Constitution and the Laws, at our Union meetings? Who has offered to pay the most money out of his own pocket, for the purpose of putting down the present Rebellion against our common government? Who hired teams, and furnished flag, to carry the cannon and artillery company from this place to attend the Union meeting at the Centre House, no longer ago than last Saturday ? Who is it that always pays these little incidental expenses of public meetings in our village? It is well known by all of our citizens who it is. It is JOHN PARKER, this same "traitor" that we hear so much about whenever a few miles away from home.
We would here say, for the benefit of this ignorant class who think that when we say "traitor" we mean "Democrat," that there is a great distinction between the two terms. A traitor is one who violates his allegiance and betrays his country. A Democrat is one who adheres to a government by the people. We hope this explanation will be sufficient to put a stop to further threats of citizens of neighboring towns coming here to mob JOHN PARKER, the "leader of the traitors." We have said heretofore, that there are traitors in and around Markesan, and as yet we do not feel disposed to take back one word of the ascertion. [sic] We don't mean JOHN PARKER, either.--We have them spotted, and we would advise them to keep their "secessionism" a little nearer home.
We know what we speaketh when we say, that JOHN PARKER will do more than double that of any other person in Markesan to carry on this war. Those individuals who think they cannot see anything perfect except when they look in a mirror, had better stop and consider, and "he that is found without sin, let him cast the first stone."
FRIDAY, MAY 17, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 26)
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It is in vain for any one to attempt to attend to the common duties of life, at this present time, as man's whole mile and energies are completely absorbed in the one great subject now before the country, viz., the war. The rebellion against our government only excited in embryo six months ago, and a[t] that time had the government manifested a disposition to suppress it, it might have been done at an expense of a few thousand dollars, and without the loss of a single life. But if it has been allowed to go on unmolested, traitors have formed themselves into combinations, in open resistance to the laws, taken possession of our Forts and Arsenals, and what was a short time since "a mere drop in the bucket," has grown in magnitude, and become more formidable than any rebellion that has ever existed since the foundation of the earth. Nothing short of a united solid phalanx of the people of the whole North, will be able to redeem our insulted and demoralized flag. Thank God we have this same Union sentiment through[ou]t the length and breadth of the land, which is all powerful in itself, and it will never falter. The people are determined, and rivers of blood shall flow from patriot's [sic] veins, but that our flag shall be redeemed. The blood of the patriots that was spilled at Baltimore on the 19th of April calls to us from the ground. Let the cry be from every hill top and valley, that our brother's blood shall be avenged. That for every drop of blood that flowed on that occasion, there shall be barrels flow [sic] from the camp of the traitors. Every intelligent person can have but one opinion as to the result of this struggle, and there is but one course to pursue, that is to press on the warfare, carry it into Africa, let sleep be a stranger to our eyelids, until every one of the rebels are made to offer up their lives as a penalty for the greatest of crimes known to God or man. Nothing short of a total annihilation of every leading rebel, will ever appease the wrath and just indignation of the whole northern people. We have no fears as in the result. Our abiding faith, in the firmness and wisdom of our great leader and captain, assures us that the grand result will be the redemption of the Stars and Stripes, which are destined to float over thirty millions or more of free and happy people, to time ad fin item.
This will be a good opportunity for military men to reap fame, and honor of distinction by their courage and loyalty. At the present time none seems to occupy a more con[s]picuous position than Brigadier General Butler, of Mass. He is destined to occupy a position in this struggle that will crown his head with the brightest of laurels, that shall be shining bright in his pathway, to his grave.
FRIDAY, MAY 24, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 27)
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THE LOAN BILLThe bill providing for a loan of one million dollars for war purposes was introduced into the Assembly on the morning of the 20th inst. by Mr. Graham of the joint select committee of thirteen.
$1000,000 Appropriated for the War
The State Journal of the 20th says: It repeals the law of the last sessisn [sic] providing for a loan of $200,000, which has not yet been acted upon, and directs the Governor and State Treasurer to contract for a loan or loans not exceeding one million of dollars, on the most favorable terms in gold and silver coin. The interest on the bonds to be issued is not to exceed six per cent, and all of the denomination of $500 or upwards, is made payable in the city of New York. The minimum denomination is fifty, the maximum one thousand dollars.
The first one hundred thousand dollars in bonds issued under this act are made redeemable on the first of July, 1877, and annually thereafter, a like amount shall be redeemed.
The people will be glad to see that it is proposed to bring a reliable currency into the State under this bill; and we trust that the salutary policy adopted by the committee will be adhered to and ratified by the Legislature. At least let us have something more adequate to resist the shocks of accident and the contingencies of war, than our present circulating medium.
FOURTH OF JULY
South Carolina, most consistently, has stricken Fourth of July from her list of holidays. The causes which led her to do it, still further endear it to us.
One year ago we had a celebration in Markesan that would have done credit to any city in the State. Are we not as able to do equally as well this year?--We have been blessed in a remarkable degree with an abundance of everything and if the citizens of our village and surrounding towns will give, say one-fourth percent on the value of their property, there can be one of the grandest celebrations at this place, ever held in Green Lake county. Citizens, what say you ? The New York Tribune makes the following suggestions with reference to the Fourth of July now approaching:
We suggest that in every city and country where treason does not forbid and forcibly prevent it, whether in the North or the South, the East or the West, the entire population who are resolved to stand by the Union and live and die under the Stars and Stripes, shall be gathered for such a celebration as our fathers loved, and that, in addition to the usual exercises, the old Flag shall be raised with all the honors, a patriotic contribution taken up for the benefit of our citizen soldiery and their needy families--the people marching by the collectors in procession, and every child who can give no more throwing in a half dime--and that we then gather round the Flag and have the oath of fidelity to the Constitution and Union solemnly administered and reverentially taken by the whole congregation. If there be other observances better calculated to impress on the general mind greatness of the peril which now hangs over the magnitude of the sacrifices now required to meet and overcome that peril, let those be added or substituted; but let there be a celebration of every county seat, such as has not been witnessed for forty years and may never again be .
FRIDAY, MAY 31, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 28)
FRIDAY, JUNE 7, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 29)Death of Stephen A. Douglas
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We are constrained to confirm that painful tidings which has already been bourne on the wings of the wind to every portion of our land. STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS is NO MORE. The wise Statesman and pure patriot sleeps the sleep of death. The bleeding hearts and blanched countenances of a Nation speak impressively the solemn truths which the words and trappings of wo [sic] so feebly express. Hardly had he been permitted to make known to the country the deep interest which he felt in our Nation's welfare and the perpetuity of the Constitution and its true principles, ere he is called to exchange his exaulted station for the perfect, enduring rest and solitude of the narrow "house appointed for all the living." The loss of the Nation is even more than it has yet realized.
On receipt of the news at this place flags were immediately displayed at half mast, bells tolled, and a general feeling of mourning was visible in the countenances of all our citizens. We lack time and space to enter in detail upon the subject of this paragraph, and would refer our readers to the different dailies and weeklies, for a full account of his sickness and death.
"Leaves here have their time to fall,
And flowers to wither at the North wind's breath,
And stars to set--but all,
Thou hast ALL seasons for thine own, O Death?"
FRIDAY, JUNE 14, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 30)
FRIDAY, JUNE 21, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 31)
[page 2, column 1] The Campaign
The situation of Virginia is materially changed by the evacuation of Harper's Ferry. Aside from the military stores there gathered, the great object of the rebels in occupying that point , was to hold a position which would enable them to act in concert with an outbreak in Baltimore, to encourage and be ready to assist any secession tendencies in Northern Maryland, and finally to combine their own strength with these rebel elements for an attack upon Washington via the Relay House. Thus Harper's Ferry was extremely valuable to the rebels as a starting point for offensive action ; but to be cooped up there on the offensive was by no means desirable.--Gen. Scott seems to have reasoned upon this, and a summing up of what he has done, will show that, having in the first place opened the Annapolis route and so saved the capitol for the moment, he occupied, held Baltimore and held that city in check, at the same time opening and guarding all the routes of communication with the North. Then gathering a strong force at Chambersburg under Patterson, and sending another Col. Stone, from Washington to menace the line of retreat of the rebels, his game was complete. His rear was protected at every point. A repulse would not involve the loss of any position. Maryland was closed to the rebels, and Harper's Ferry, instead of being the depot of and [sic] invading army, was converted into a mere cage, where to fight was useless, and where defense, however vigorous, could only result in a waste of life. Thus an evacuation became a military necessity, and Gen. Scott gained all the benefits of a great victory without the loss of life or waste of good gun-powder.
Washington is now for the first time safe in fact. An attact [sic] from the Maryland side is impossible. The Potomac is efficiently guarded above the city; and the large army which, so long as the rebels held the Ferry, was needed at Chambersburg, Carlisle, Perryville, Baltimore; the Relay House and along the railroads, becomes immediately available for the defense of Washington or for an advance upon Manassas.--Where a regiment was to [sic] small before; a company will answer now. Washington gains 30,000 troops by the evacuation of Harper's Ferry. It is in the letting loose and making available the divisions of patterson [sic], Cadwallader, Banks and Stone, as well as in the greater freedom of action now permitted to McLellan's [sic] force in Western Virginia, that the advantage of this bloodless victory is found. Nobody gets any "glory" out of it; but the rebels loose [sic] a vast advantage and suffer the humiliation of a retreat without the firing of a gun.
Turning to Missouri, the campaign there is conducted on entirely different principles. There are few great strategic points to be defended, and it is not exactly possible to get in anybody's rear. So Gen. Lyon, with a small force, dashes on Jefferson City, occupies the railroads by single companies, and can go as far as he pleases, without caring as to means of retreat. He "comprehends his epoch," and is finishing up Gov. Jackson in a capital style. If he catches "Gov. Claib," it is to be hoped that he will have some good and sufficient reason for a drum head court martial, to be followed by the hanging of the traitorious Governor.
FRIDAY, JUNE 28, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 32)The News.
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From our eastern exchanges and the telegraphings of the associated press, should, if we believed them implicitly, be of the opinion that a great national battle, like that of Austerlitz or Waterloo, was in daily expectation with the powers at Washington, but those constant alarms we do not believe are well founded.
It is true we have a strong force at and near Washington ready for a fight, but our opinion remains that the policy of the Administration is not to commence vigorous measures till after Congress meets, and clothes the President and the troops with the requisite legal powers. On the other hand the rebels dare not make an attack. Scott's forces are so disposed that they cannot be surprised, and we are far from believing that Jeff Davis is a great commander or hero, or that he possesses the cool courage and fearless bravery necessary in a great commander. He is proba[b]ly moderately brave, but he has never shown that to be the case. Beauregard did succeed in driving sixty half starved men out of Fort Sumter with 10,000 troops, and this has made him think himself a great hero, but his late proclamation shows himself to be a blustering blackguard instead of a great commander. Pillow is another stormy cloud resting over Memphis but that he is an able general we have not the least idea. We do not believe therefore that the rebel chiefs will dare make a grand attack on the federal forces at any important point, and we believe the general policy of Gen. Scott is to protect Washington at all hazards till Congress meets; and be all in readiness for the actual campaign. We therefore do not look for the great battle yet. Still there may be one.--So many troops with such hostile feelings may get into a great fight at any time. But we of course shall give our readers the news just as we get it.
FRIDAY, JULY 5, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 33)
FRIDAY, JULY 12, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 34)
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The PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE is all that was expected in the firmness of tone and thoroughness of its recommendations.--There is also a genial, Catholic spirit towards our erring bretheren [sic] of the South that proves his magnanimity. His review of the attack on Fort Sumter is conclusive of the forbearance of the National Government. His recital of his action in suspending the writ of Habeas Corpus, in certain places, will go far to convince grumblers that President Lincoln has no desire to exercise doubtful powers.
We intended to have given the message in full this week and have it out ahead of the mails. In order to do this, we ordered it printed in the form of an extra, at Madison, and forwarded as early as possible, but it has failed to arrive, and consequently we are unable to give it to day.
FRIDAY, JULY 19, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 35)
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FORWARD MARCH.--The grand army of 53,000 strong are now in motion. Gen. Patterson is adout [sic] advancing on Winchester; as the rebels have retreated from Bunker Hill. Gen.'s McClellan and Patterson's advance will render the march of the Grand Army from Washington, comparatively easy, as the flank movement of McClellan will compel the evacuation of Manassas Junction which the Confederates* have been fortifying for weeks. It now looks as if the Grand Army would do less of the fighting than the other divisions. That army is so large and terrible that Gen. Scott expects that it will overpower all oppositions.--That army burns to march on Richmond but Gen. SCOTT has not yet given the word Advance.
We have a report from Memphis that Gen. Lyon has been defeated in South Western Missouri by Ben. McColloch.--But we shall be disappointed if the real truth is not that Lyon has won a Waterloo over the Indians of Arkansas and Missouri, as in the neighborhood of Neosho, Lyon has an army of 6,000 first class soldiers under his command, and we believe that if he gives them battle, he will route them like chaff before the whirlwind.
POOR OLD VIRGINIA.--If any body wants evidence that the fools are not all dead, but on the contrary are on the increase, let them look at the course pursued by the people of Virginia. Three months ago this State was prosperous and happy enjoying all the blessings of peace and plenty, and her people found security in the laws and protection of the Government, To-day opposing armies devastating her soil, exhausting her resources and destroying her vitality, all because her people are fools enough to turn Secessionists and traitors. It would be hard to tell what she has profited by treason. The State is divided, and two conflicting local governments will contend for mastery of her ancient domain. Her mechanics have lost forever the government works of Harper's Ferry and Gosport Navy Yard, her railroads, bridges and most costly internal improvements have been annihilated; her commerce and trade destroyed; her treasury empty; her credit and honor are gone; her soil is stained with fraternal blood, and her citizens subjected to the many horrors of civil warfare. All this because her people made fools of themselves out of sympathy for a few bobadils and demagogues of the Cotton States.
A more unhappy fate than that of Virginia this day, can hardly be conceived.
If the present war should stop now, the South is financially ruined, and it would take twenty years to bring it where it was twenty years ago. The North is not badly hurt as yet, but one year such times as the present, will place us in a similar predicament. War is a sort of smash up of every thing. The pieces may be saved--that is all. The farmers may possibly be an exception; and those of them who are not so badly in debt will get along pretty well after the shock is over.
*The first instance in which Pond uses the term "Confederate" to describe the South.
FRIDAY, JULY 26, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 36)
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A GENERAL REVIEW
If it were necessary, we would enter into the details of the occurrences of the past week, which to say the least have been of an exciting and interesting character. The mails of the 22d brought news of a glorious victory of the Union army near Manassas, which few had scarcely read, before the intelligence of a disastrous defeat from their reported field of victory to their fortifications on the Potomac, was received. This seemed so terrible and awful that it struck like an ice bolt through every loyal heart.--It blanched the cheek of the strongest and bravest. What a terrible disaster ! and were there any of our boys in the engagement? was the anxious exclamations of all.
The facts seem to be simply these, which we gather from the Evening Wisconsin, of the 23d and 24th:
We had carried the batteries which commanded Bull's Run, and we were gradually sweeping towards Manassas, carrying the batteries. Just at that time Gen. Johnson's army came up and reinforced Beauregard. Our troops were pressed back, and suddenly a panic arose which communicated like an insanity to the whole army, and they finally rushed pell-mell to Washington--not stopping until they got within the line of the fortification. The retreat appears to have been at night, and they were not pursued. It was one of those panics which occur in great armies and which only the presence of such a man as Napoleon or Scott could check.
The cause of the disaster appears to have been the reinforcement of Gen. Johnson, which our troops had not counted on--as it was supposed Gen. Pattersons [sic] fine army would keep him in check, and certainly it does appear to us that McDowell tried to accomplish too much. After he had the three rebel batteries of 19 guns on both sides of Bull's Run, had he then stopped and held fast to what he had got--perhaps this great might have been avoided. Gen. McDowell no doubt did well, but he is not Gen. Scott--the presence of the latter on the field would have been as good as twenty thousand men.
Our loss is estimated as not exceeding 600 in killed and wounded. Our soldiers were only about twenty miles from their entrenchments at Washington, and most of their baggage train and provisions were sent back, so that the chief loss of military equipments is in the rifled cannon, which we soon can replace. Of course the retreat is disgraceful and demoralizing, and will seriously injure us abroad, while it will greatly encourage Confederates in the Southern States.--But we have two fine armies in Virginia under McClellan and Banks. They number 60,000. Gen. Banks, who now commands Gen. Patterson's division never yet failed in anything he undertook. We indulge the hope that he will yet take the rebel army on its flank and restore what McDowell has so sadly lost. The Government has at least 20,000 men in different camps in New York and Pennsylvania. Brave men in a good cause may despond for a moment, but they will soon rise with renewed energies and irresistable _________ rebel army was so badly cut up that it could not pursue--in fact, their loss in men appears to be the greatest, as the Southern report is 3,000 killed and wounded. There is no doubt that we had gained a victory until the panic commenced, and then we not only lost what we had gained, but were hurried into a disgraceful retreat. It really appears that our troops fought clear down to Manassas lines--at least five miles below Centerville. It was there that the first repulse was felt, upon the arrival of Gen. Johnson's army, 20,000 strong from Winchester. We were driven back to Bull's run [sic]--where the last reports say the pursuit of the enemy stopped--after they had retaken their battery of 19 guns, which our soldiers stormed on Sunday morning. It seems most singular that McDowell did not order up some of his fresh troops to the aid of the division that had been engaged ten hours. There crops out much mismanagement, or perhaps efficiency on the part of those in high command. There appears to have been no organization among the teamsters. Of course at the first panic they started off like a flock of sheep, and thus communicated the panic to thousands of the soldiers.
Napoleon had a military organization for the teamsters of his army. In our's [sic] in Virginia, the teamsters are allowed to come close up near the battle-field. They and a lot of cowardly Members of Congress got scared, and off they ran until they reached Washington. The people can so clearly see how this sad affair was blundered into a great misfortune, that they are not affrighted at the reverse, but indignant, or rather savage, manner in which our army has been misdirected.
FRIDAY, August 2, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 37)
FRIDAY, August 9, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 38)
FRIDAY, August 16, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 39)
FRIDAY, August 23, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 40)
FRIDAY, August 30, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 41)
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 42)
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THE NAVAL EXPEDITION
The newspapers can scarcely exaggerate the importance of the late triumph of the federal army on the North Carolina coast. Pamlico and Albermarl [sic] Sounds are bodies of water covering nearly the whole coast of North Carolina and extending up into Virginia, and separated from the Atlantic by a sand beach. Hatteras Inlet and other small inlets connecting them with the Atlantic. By the possession of Hateras Inles we understand the Government to have access to all this important frontier of N. Carolina, washed by these waters, and when she chooses to employ the men munitions [sic], that frontier is at her mercy, with a chance to penetrate the interior if disposed. The immediate fruits of the victory are already detailed by telegraph, and in yrisoners [sic], mutitions &c., furnishes a very tolerable offset to Bull Run.
The attention of North Carolina will now be diverted from a participation in the capture of Washington, to pressing subjects nearer home; and we apprehend it is significant that some other of the C. S. A. may find similar employment for all their available force. A fire in the rear is not only inconvenient but is generally fatal to any projects which require the undivided attention in another direction.
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 43)
FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 44)
SEPTEMBER ?, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 45)
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 5, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 46)
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 47)John Quincy Adams on a Southern War
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The extract below from a speech by John Quincy Adams in Congress, April 14th and 15th, 1842, will be read with deep interest at this time from its bearing on the present war, and because it gives so clearly the views of one of the ablest and most learned statesmen this country has ever produced. We ask for it the careful reading of every man who would thoroughly understand the nature of the contest in which we are now engaged:
"I believe that so long as the slave States are able to sustain their institutions without going abroad or calling upon other parts of the Union to aid them or act upon the subject, so long I will consent never to interfere. I have said this, and I repeat it; but if they come to the free States, and say to them, you must help us keep down our slaves, you must aid us in an insurrection and a civil war, then I say that with that call comes a full and plenary power to the House and Senate over the whole subject. It is a war power. I say it is a war power, and when your country is actually in war, whether it be a war of invasion or a war of insurrection, Congress has power to carry on the war, and must carry it on according to the laws of war, and by the laws of war, an invaded country has all its laws and municipal institutions swept by the board, and martial law takes the place of them.
The power in Congress has, perhaps never been call [sic] into exercise under the present Constitution of the United States. But when the laws of war are in force, what, I ask, is one of these laws? It is this: that when a country is invaded, and two hostile armies are set in martial array, the commanders of both armies have power to emancipate all the slaves in the invaded territory."
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 19, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 48)
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1861 (VOL 2, NO. 50)
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OFF ON THE WAR
Having determined to go to the war, we wish to tender to our many kind friends, who have contributed so liberally to the support of the JOURNAL for the past year, our most heartfelt thanks and good wishes. Two numbers more will complete the 2d volume, which will relieve us from all obligations to our patrons, with but three or four exceptions.* In leaving we do not feel as we would, were we doing a paying business. It has been a somewhat tedious task for us to run the paper as it should be on account of our ready means being limited and we are sorry to admit that after having managed the concern as economically as we could during the year, we are some $75 in debt. We feel that in leaving the city to do what little we can to crush treason, uphold the Constitution, and defend the Union, that we are but simply discharging a duty that all able-bodied men owe their country, and in times like these, when the principles of free government are being undermined and the rights of man are being ignored and trampled upon, nothing should prevent any man who is able to shoulder his musket from rallying in the defense of RIGHT.
The publication of the JOURNAL will be continued by another person, provided the citizens feel like doing anything towards sustaining it.
We now wish to give our delinquents FAIR WARNING that their year will be up in two weeks from the present number, and all those who do not call and settle by that time, or remit, will find their names published in a list to be entitled the "Dishonorable Record."--This list will be published in an extra, comprising all persons indebted to us who are abundantly able to pay and do not. Those interested must decide for themselves in what manner they prefer to have their accounts cancelled--whether they will have their names held up for the scorn of mankind, or walk up LIKE MEN and pay up.
* The October 26, 1861, issue is the last in the collection of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Although it is possible that the final two issues simply have not survived, there is reason to believe that they were never published and that Pond did not remain in Markesan to complete them. The Wisconsin Civil War Compiled Service Records: Muster Rolls, etc., 2nd-3rd Cav. recorded by the Wisconsin Adjutant General's Office ("Blue Book") indicate that Pond enlisted in the Third Wisconsin Cavalry in Kingston, Wisconsin, on November 2.